How do plaque and tartar form and what do they do?
Plaque is a gummy substance that forms on the teeth within a few hours after a meal. Within 24 hours, plaque begins to harden by combining with salts that are present in the saliva. As the plaque continues to accumulate and mineralize, it eventually forms tartar. Tartar, also called calculus, is rough and porous and can develop above and below the gum line.
There are two ways that tartar harms the teeth and gums:
First, tartar forms a rough surface serving as a place for bacteria to grow and multiply in the mouth. Bacteria can cause inflammation of the gums (gingivitis), which often results in painful bleeding. Gingivitis often progresses to periodontal disease, which leads to further inflammation, pain and tooth loss. As tartar builds along the gum line, it pushes the gums away from the roots of the teeth. As the gums recede, they expose the sensitive, enamel-free part of the tooth which causes sensitivity and pain.
Second, the bacteria on the tartar can be absorbed into the blood stream and deposited in various organs, including the heart, liver and kidneys, causing infection.
How can I prevent plaque and tartar formation on my pet’s teeth?
After your pet’s teeth have been professionally cleaned and polished by your veterinarian, home dental care is needed to help reduce plaque and tartar buildup. You can decrease plaque accumulation by:
- Feeding your pet Veterinary Health Oral Council (VOHC) accepted dental diet which slows plaque and tartar accumulation by mechanical or chemical means. By limiting plaque as it forms, tartar development is greatly reduced.
- Brushing or wiping your dog’s teeth daily. This is the most effective ways to remove plaque before it turns into tartar. Do not use human toothpaste as it contains ingredients that can cause an upset stomach when swallowed.
- Using a VOHC accepted water additive to reduce the bacterial count in the mouth, resulting in improved breath.
- Offering your pet chew toys and dental treats that are specifically designed to help reduce or remove mild tartar. Never let pets chews on toys that may break their teeth (bones, antlers, even ice cubes). Any acceptable chew toy should yield with thumb pressure as this indicates that it is not too hard for your pet’s mouth. Also, tennis balls are very abrasive and can wear down teeth.
- Having your veterinarian perform dental cleaning under general anesthesia as needed. Regular dental cleaning is important in pets as it is in people, and will go a long way to prevent irreversible damage to the gums and roots.
How do I know if the product I’m using to prevent tartar is actually working?
The Veterinary Oral Health Council only accepts dental products that are safe and proven to reduce the accumulation of plaque and tartar based on strict scientific studies. A list of accepted products can be viewed at www.VOHC.org.